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老铁(tie)们,这份校园安全用电常识请(qing)收(shou)好
发布(bu)日期:2021-12-13 09:20:58编辑:张吉(ji)作者:浏览数:次

进入冬季,校(xiao)园(yuan)用电范(fan)围和(he)用电量都在(zai)(zai)不(bu)断(duan)增大,校(xiao)园(yuan)用电安全隐患不(bu)断(duan)增加。据相关统计,不(bu)合理用电、缺乏(fa)用电常(chang)识,是引发火灾的(de)主要原(yuan)因(yin)(yin)。为了防(fang)止因(yin)(yin)不(bu)当用电带来(lai)的(de)危险(xian)和(he)损失,保(bao)障正常(chang)的(de)教育教学(xue)秩(zhi)序(xu),做到防(fang)患于未然,学(xue)院特提醒全校(xiao)师生在(zai)(zai)电气使用过程中注意以下常(chang)识:

 

一、什么是(shi)安全电压?

安(an)全(quan)电(dian)压是(shi)指不致使人(ren)直接致死(si)或致残的(de)电(dian)压,一般环境条件下允许持续接触的(de)“安(an)全(quan)特(te)低电(dian)压”是(shi)36V,全(quan)电(dian)流为10mA, 电(dian)击对人(ren)体(ti)的(de)危害程度,主要取决于通过人(ren)体(ti)电(dian)流的(de)大小(xiao)和通电(dian)时间(jian)长短(个(ge)别人(ren)因体(ti)质(zhi)不同感觉略有(you)不同)。

二、电气线路火(huo)灾(zai)的产(chan)生?

电(dian)(dian)气线路起(qi)火通常是(shi)由于短(duan)路、过(guo)负荷、接(jie)触不良、接(jie)头松动、导线接(jie)触表面氧化等引起(qi)局部过(guo)热、漏电(dian)(dian)导线绝缘层被损坏(huai),接(jie)触金属管而产(chan)生(sheng)电(dian)(dian)火花(hua)等因素造成的。

三、什么是短路、断路、过负荷、超(chao)功率、额定功率?

1.电力(li)系(xi)统中,所谓“ 短路”是(shi)指电力(li)系(xi)统正常运(yun)行情况以外的(de)(de)相(xiang)与相(xiang)之(zhi)间(jian)或相(xiang)与地(或中性线)之(zhi)间(jian)的(de)(de)接通(tong),通(tong)常这是(shi)一种严重而应该尽可(ke)能(neng)避免电路的(de)(de)故障,会导致电路因电流过(guo)大(da)而烧毁并发(fa)生火灾。

2.断路(开(kai)(kai)路):是指处(chu)于电路没有闭合开(kai)(kai)关,或者导线(xian)没有连接好,或用电器烧坏(huai)或没安装好,即整个电路在某处(chu)断开(kai)(kai)的状(zhuang)态。

3.过负(fu)荷:指在电(dian)力系统中(zhong)发(fa)电(dian)机(ji)、变压器及线路的电(dian)流(liu)超过额定(ding)值或(huo)规定(ding)的允许值。

4.额(e)定功率:电(dian)器(qi)(qi)的额(e)定功率是指用电(dian)器(qi)(qi)正(zheng)常(chang)工作时(shi)的功率。

四、办公室(宿舍)常(chang)见电器隐患?

1.一个插座(zuo)不要带太多电(dian)器,因为(wei)插头插座(zuo)接(jie)触(chu)部位电(dian)流(liu)过(guo)大(da),会引(yin)起(qi)发热、接(jie)触(chu)不良,如果温度过(guo)高,就容易引(yin)起(qi)火灾(zai)。一般墙上五孔插座(zuo)额定电(dian)流(liu)10A,仅限于接(jie)一个国标接(jie)线板,累积最大(da)负荷(he)不超过(guo)2000W。

2.同一(yi)房间内不(bu)能只使用个(ge)别固定(ding)的(de)(de)几个(ge)插(cha)座,而应该将负荷匀一(yi)下(xia),这样可以有效(xiao)避免某一(yi)部分插(cha)座加速(su)老化,失效(xiao)现象的(de)(de)发生。

3.便携式电(dian)(dian)器(如手机充(chong)电(dian)(dian)器)一(yi)般体积小,散(san)(san)热性(xing)差,因此使(shi)用(yong)(yong)时要注意不(bu)要遮盖,方(fang)便散(san)(san)热,同(tong)时还应与(yu)易燃物保持一(yi)定距(ju)离,以预(yu)防(fang)火灾的(de)发生,使(shi)用(yong)(yong)完(wan)毕后及时从插(cha)座上拔下,不(bu)要认为手机拔掉(diao)就安全了,不(bu)用(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)了。避免区(qu)域用(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)负荷减(jian)少,导(dao)致局部电(dian)(dian)压升(sheng)高,击穿充(chong)电(dian)(dian)器电(dian)(dian)器薄弱元件(jian),引起(qi)火灾。

4.房间内(nei)长时(shi)间无人时(shi),应(ying)及时(shi)关(guan)(guan)闭所用电源开关(guan)(guan)(电脑等电器(qi)关(guan)(guan)机(ji)后,还(hai)应(ying)关(guan)(guan)闭插座开关(guan)(guan)),关(guan)(guan)闭屋(wu)内(nei)总(zong)(zong)断路器(qi)(总(zong)(zong)闸)。

5.室内(nei)严禁给电(dian)(dian)(dian)瓶车充电(dian)(dian)(dian)。在(zai)给设施充电(dian)(dian)(dian)时(特别注意(yi)锂电(dian)(dian)(dian)池)必须(xu)做到有人监管,充电(dian)(dian)(dian)类设备充满电(dian)(dian)(dian)后(hou)及时关闭(bi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),拔(ba)下(xia)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)插头。

五、电加热(re)类电器具为(wei)何容(rong)易引起火(huo)灾?

电(dian)热器具(ju)一般具(ju)有功率(lv)大、温度高的特点。如果在使用(yong)后忘记切断电(dian)源,使用(yong)中突(tu)然停(ting)电(dian)忘记将电(dian)源切断,或来电(dian)后无人看管,导致定(ding)时(shi)、定(ding)温控制器失灵,温度指(zhi)示(shi)器失灵,加热容器内物品(pin)被烧(shao)干,或电(dian)热器紧(jin)贴可燃物品(pin),开关、触(chu)点接触(chu)不(bu)良等(deng)都会引(yin)起火灾。

所以严禁在校(xiao)园(yuan)室内(宿舍内)使(shi)用吹风机、电磁炉、热(re)水器等大功率(lv)电器。

六、为什(shen)么不能(neng)私自拉、接(jie)电线?

电气设备(bei)线(xian)(xian)路的(de)(de)安装铺设是(shi)一项非常需要专业(ye)知识(shi)和(he)技能的(de)(de)工(gong)作,国家明文规定,安装电线(xian)(xian)和(he)电气设备(bei)必(bi)须由专业(ye)电工(gong)操作。私自拉、接(jie)电线(xian)(xian)会由于负(fu)荷(he)不(bu)符,接(jie)触不(bu)实等因素引(yin)起(qi)火灾、造成触电事故(gu)。为(wei)了使(shi)用方(fang)便,私自拉接(jie)电线(xian)(xian),这种(zhong)行为(wei)严重威胁自己和(he)别人的(de)(de)生(sheng)命(ming),是(shi)坚(jian)决不(bu)允许的(de)(de)。

七、为什么严禁使用各类充电(dian)灯、劣质充电(dian)器和充电(dian)电(dian)源(yuan)等其它劣质充电(dian)物品? 

当前(qian),各种电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子(zi)(zi)产(chan)品为大(da)(da)家的(de)生活和(he)(he)(he)学习带来了极大(da)(da)的(de)便利,是大(da)(da)家经常使(shi)用(yong)的(de)物品。这类电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子(zi)(zi)产(chan)品大(da)(da)多都(dou)使(shi)用(yong)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)和(he)(he)(he)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源。但一(yi)些(xie)(xie)(xie)不法之徒(tu)为利所驱(qu),生产(chan)和(he)(he)(he)销售(shou)劣(lie)质(zhi)(zhi)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)、充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)灯和(he)(he)(he)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源,而我们购买和(he)(he)(he)使(shi)用(yong)了这些(xie)(xie)(xie)劣(lie)质(zhi)(zhi)的(de)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)、充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)灯和(he)(he)(he)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源。这种三无产(chan)品使(shi)用(yong)假(jia)冒劣(lie)质(zhi)(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)线,元件,做工粗糙,没有质(zhi)(zhi)检,使(shi)用(yong)时(shi)会因虚接(jie)、发热出现安(an)全(quan)(quan)隐患,导(dao)致(zhi)火情(qing)火灾发生。这些(xie)(xie)(xie)劣(lie)质(zhi)(zhi)的(de)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)、充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)灯和(he)(he)(he)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源像一(yi)颗颗“定(ding)时(shi)炸弹”埋藏在(zai)我们身边(bian),时(shi)刻威胁着我们的(de)生命和(he)(he)(he)财产(chan)的(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)。

为了(le)个(ge)人和他人及学校的安(an)全,请格外注意(yi)(yi)用电安(an)全和消防安(an)全,提高安(an)全用电意(yi)(yi)识,增强(qiang)安(an)全用电观念,确保校园安(an)全、稳(wen)定、有序。

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